LA03 – Understanding positioning

    1. Look at the following logos and explain in your own words what you consider their positioning to be (do this for each one).


Coca-Cola is a very popular world-wide-known soda distributed by the Coca-Cola Company. Their target market is anyone over 12 years old, who needs consumable energy and is thirsty. Their product is known for it’s quality and commercials. Their point of destinction is their purpose of killing thirst with good taste, while giving you an energy refill to do fun things (as they usually create in their commercials).

Volkswagen is a german car manufacturing company whose name means People’s Car. They offer quality cars to affordable prices. Volkswagen targets urban areas for their outlets, which results in more sales. They also have an incredible CRM (customer relationship management), resulting in happy customers. Their target group is 25-44year old people in search of an affordable car with good standards, typically young parents and young adults, but also a wide range of other people.

Visa is a financial services corporation. They have a variety of different cards, and are supported all around the world, making them a very attractive card for travellers. Their target market is anyone in a hurry, who wants less obstacles in life, and Visa typically uses people we’d like to be for their commercials (referring to commercials with the character James Bond, and kung-fu-inspired commercials from China, starring Zhang Ziyi, a very famous chinese actress and model). Their concept is that a life without cash is so much easier, and that with this brand you can rest easy knowing it’ll be accepted anywhere (even in indian markets).

  1. Lets work backwards! Look at the logo on the Apple iPhone and, by doing your own research, investigate the history of the product and the company that manufactures it. Give an outline, in your own words, of what you consider the following to be:
    • Describe its brand identity – exactly as you see it
    • What do you think its positioning is currently?
    • What do you think the strategy for this specific product was?
    • What research do you think was done on this by the company who made it?


Apple sells a vision, a community, the chance to be part of a larger group. The apple is the logo of that group, and by having it in your hand – anyone can see that you’re a part of that group. The iPhone’s image is simple, and the technology is different from Android phones. Their positioning is in their uniquity, simplicity and elegancy, customers find the products of quality and the company serious and, most likely, the best. Although one must argue, if you’re used to having an iphone, it’ll probably be a less smooth transition to go over to Android and vice-verca. Apple is sold under the impression of using a very intuitive and simple navigation system, but this is all about how technical you are as a person and which system you are used to from before. Apple has created the same apps for several products, making it easy to transfer information from one device to another.

I think that as for now, Apple’s iPhone target group is anyone using or in need of a mobile device, and who would like to pay a lot of money for all that comes with the purchase (status, apps restricted to the apple systems, etc). It is very popular amongst rich people, probably because the new releases are incredibly expensive though usually of the same or worse technology as their competitors, and one can easily understand how a very normal person would want the same things as people with a higher income. I believe the strategy for this specific product was to make it desired by kids, teenagers, young adults and adults, probably a range from 11 years old to approximately 50 years old, as people over that age tend to go for Android systems or even stupid phones (not smart phones). I believe Apple has tried to be innovative by coming with new models every other year, and as the recurrance of design has resulted in sales in a big way over the years, it is understandable that they would keep doing what’s been working so well. But their strategy is about to change, as their target group is no longer interested in buying the same product over and over again (same as in new product with minor changes), and though simplicity and recognizable features have been a success before – we might see big changes by the next release.

I believe the research done by the company who made it was based on community. The Apple Iphone had to deliver something the other phone companies did not, and by releasing the iPad, the Apple Watch, the iPhone, the Mac, they had simplicity distributed through several devices. The iPhone also has a cool feature called Siri, a female search engine for the iPhone that assists you with every request and even comes with a few comebacks to your questions/statements.

But how did they come up with the idea for the Apple iPhone?

I believe they first figured out what the other phones had and lacked, and then they asked themselves the question “What do we still need in the phones that are out there?”. They probably concluded with individualism, as most phones already on the market used the same system already, and therefore came up with a different setup. I imagine they also asked a group of people in a variety of ages, through – for instance – a survey, to figure out what the customers were missing in the actual market.


  1. Now take the same product as in question 2 and explain, in your own words, how the visual element (in this case, the logo) fits in with the brand identity.

The logo fits well with the brand identity, which is simplicity. An apple is a very simple source of energy, yet tasteful. So is the product, to certain degrees.



Marketing mix of Volkswagen


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